The Book of Phyz - AP Physics 2

© Dean Baird. All rights reserved.

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The documents and all material contained therein are © Dean Baird. All rights reserved. They may be used by teachers and students for classroom instruction. Beyond that, no part of these documents may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author.

1 Temperature and Heat Examples
Definitions of quantities, explanations of equations, and worked out example problems.
2 What IS Temperature?
Temperature is one of the slipperiest quantities in physics to define; this guide develops the standard high school definition, but acknowledges more sophisticated possibilities (including negative kelvin temps).
3 Measuring Temperature
Temperature scales and how they were developed: Fahrenheit, Celsius, Rankine, and Kelvin.
4 Thermal Properties Reference
Tables of thermal expansion coefficients, specific heat values, thermal conductivities, melting/boiling points, latent heat values.
5 Compleat Guide to Heat
Gives the historical development of the concept of heat, including the downfall of caloric theory. (Yes, I meant to say "Compleat.")
6 Specific Heat Capacity
How does the thermal energy absorbed by an object make its temperature go up? And why does the rate of temperature increase vary from one material to another?
 7 Conduction
Conceptual development of the equation for thermal conduction rate. The first illustration still makes Tracy Childers laugh out loud.
8 Convection
Explains the mechanism behind convection.
9 Thermal Radiation
Develops the Stefan-Boltzman radiation law one parameter at a time. Lots of R.E.M. references students may still get. They were hip in 1992.
10 The Trouble With Ice
Explains the curious nature of ice and why it floats. Very important if you're a fish trying to evolve!


1 Felix and Digby Get the Point - Answers
Conceptual adventures in thermal expansion!
2 The Java and the Iceberg Springboard - Answers - Presentation (Quicktime)
Distinguishing between temperature and heat.
3 Heat Capacity Springboard - Answer - Presentation (Quicktime)
and specific heat capacity
4 Thermal Conduction Springboard - Answers
Explores the factors important in thermal conduction. This is a pre-demo activity for the Cconductivity Spider.
Simple Heat Engines Springboard - Answers - Presentation (Quicktime)
Simple calculations for the work done by an engine.
  LABS - The unlinked titles below are available in the Conceptual Physics lab manual from Pearson Education - Amazon link
Bouncing Off the Walls (PhET sim-based Tech Lab)
Kinetic Theory and Ideal Gas Laws in an interactive, highly visual presentation. PhET sim, "Gas Properties" available here.
Canned Heat
Radiation can experiment in two parts. First fill a black, white, and silver can with cold water and shine a heat lamp on them while monitoring temperatures. Then fill the cans with hot water (coffee temperature) and let them cool down while monitoring temperature.
  DEMOS - The unlinked titles below are available in the Conceptual Physics lab manual from Pearson Education - Amazon link
 1 Unincorporated Heat Demos - Presentation (Quicktime) - HTML Presentation
Galilean thermoscope, bimetallic strips, convection candle, flameproof paper, Miracle Thaw®, Leidenball. Students keep this handy throughout the unit and use it when specific demos come up.

Thermoscope [Virtual Demonstration] at Teachers Pay Teachers
Galileo's inverted Florence flask in wine, modified and updated for classroom use in a couple of iterations to visualize changes in temperature. Includes a discussion of temperature scales.

Miracle Thaw [Virtual Demonstration] at Teachers Pay Teachers
It's a day at the ice-melting races as a Miracle Thaw, foil-covered Miracle Thaw, and black Styrofoam plate are pitted against each other to see which can liquefy ice fastest.
2 Tower of Bottle [Virtual Demonstration] at Teachers Pay Teachers
Hot water in one; cold in the other. Add food color to see which is which. Card on top of the hot. Now invert the hot one on top of the cold; remove card. Next reinsert card and invert (cold on top); remove card. Must be seen! Thanks to Jessica Downing for this one!
3 Ball & Ring [Demonstration Guide] at Teachers Pay Teachers
Yeah, yeah; we all do it. But this write-up gets more mileage out of this simple demo. See for yourself!
Conductivity Spider [Demonstration Guide] at Teachers Pay Teachers
For use with an overhead thermal conductivity demonstration apparatus. Four metal arms, wax; you know the routine. This water-based version is no longer easy to find. Conductometers are similar in function, but use a lab flame as a heat source.
The Convectionator - Presentation (Zipped QuickTime)
Convection demonstration using a convection tube (square loop with fill neck).
"Radiometer" [Demonstration Guide] at Teachers Pay Teachers
A demonstration of thermal absorption and radiation using the classic radiometer, a heat lamp, a showcase bulb, a compact fluorescent bulb, an IR filter and a visible light filter. Very rich!


Heat Begins With an M (QuickTime)
Part of the "Physics Begins with an M" series. This is a QuickTime export from Keynote that has been Zipped.
Heat Begins With an M Keynote
A nifty Keynote presentation of the M's. (Keynote is Apple's presentation software; PowerPoint is Microsoft's presentation software.) Trust me, neither Keynote nor PowerPoint are The Great Saviors of education. I recommend using them sparingly if at all. Better to teach!
3 Mechanical Universe: Temperature and the Gas Laws [Teachers Pay Teachers question sets]
This episode includes a discussion of kinetic theory, Charles' law, and Boyle's law. Excellent graphics (molecular dynamics simulator). Alternate forms accommodate students seated side-by-side.
4 Kinetic Karnival: The Leidenfrost Effect at Teachers Pay Teachers
This is probably the best episode of Jearl Walker's Kinetic Karnival. In it, he dips his hand into molten lead, puts liquid nitrogen in his mouth, and walks over hot coals in his bare feet. He explains all theses (and other) feats in terms of The Leidenfrost Effect: the creation of a low-conduction vapor layer between objects with large temperature differences. Highly recommended! But do handle with care: there is one regrettable gaffe that I will leave to you on how best to handle.
Heat & Temperature Crossword: Grid - Clues
6 Practice Test Questions - Answers
Sample test questions covering heat and temperature.

  PhyzGuide: Thermal Expansion
  Introduction to Radiation Springboard - Answers
Explores the nature of thermal radiation--carefully and slowly.
  Newton's Law of Cooling Springboard - Answers
How should you set your thermostat when you leave for work every day?
  Pinocchio Pipe (Al, Cu, PVC)
Run hot water through a pipe and see evidence of expansion. Very inexpensive version.
  Thermal Meltdown
Specific heat demonstration.
  Temperature Wrap-Up Springboard - Answers
Revisiting the idea of temperature after learning other elements of heat.

Hot Metal
Specific heat lab. More of a rough idea than a ready-for-prime-time lab.

Click here for a legend and explanation of cryptic terms and abbreviations.

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The Book of Phyz © Dean Baird. All rights reserved.